Gods have been prominent in the Dragon Ball series since the original manga, where we were introduced with Kami, a deity who served as the protector of Earth. Gods are often treated more like a job position that anyone can achieve with enough discipline, and there are many different types of gods with different purposes.
Obviously a god who watches over a peaceful planet that nobody knows about should usually be weaker than a God of Destruction, who spends their time destroying entire worlds. This list will be ordering the top 10 most powerful canon deities in the Dragon Ball franchise. This will include only those who have been referred to as gods, and not people who are just god-like beings such as the Angels.
Zamasu was a Supreme Kai in training from Universe 10, training under Gowasu. He came to the conclusion after much observation that mortals were unnecessary and imperfect and were the source of immorality and corruption. He viewed Gowasu's compassion towards mortals as a weakness, and his goal was to wipe all mortals from existence.
Zamasu became very powerful as Goku Black, having placed his soul in the body of Goku. Eventually, he made himself immortal using the power of Super Shenron, and then eventually merged his immortal body with that of Goku Black. One thing led to another, and he started becoming one with the fabric of the cosmos, extending his reach to separate timelines attempting to transform them into his twisted ideal of law and order. He was eventually erased by the Zeno of the future.
Dragon Ball Super introduced the concept of Gods of Destruction to contrast to the Supreme Kai that were introduced during the Buu Arc; while Supreme Kai create celestial bodies, Gods of Destruction destroy them. The first God of Destruction we see is Beerus of Universe 7, and shortly after, we see his twin brother Champa of Universe 6.
While most Gods of Destruction are weaker than Beerus, Champa has fought him on multiple occasions and is one of the only ones capable of standing up to him. In a debate between the two, Champa and Beerus almost shattered both of their respective universes just by shouting at each other.
Top is first introduced during the Universal Survival Arc as a member of Team Universe 11 and leader of the Pride Troopers, a team of fighters who bring justice to their entire universe. Top was later shown throughout the arc to actually be a God of Destruction in training, and even in the manga he was capable of utilising the power of a God.
He took on the form of a Destroyer during the Tournament of Power, his aura then being enough to erase things from existence. He was able to fight against Vegeta during the Tournament of Power in both the anime and the manga, and he easily defeated Golden Frieza in the anime.
Vegeta has always been a powerful character since he's been introduced, always eventually managing to surpass most of the villains that overshadowed him in the past. He's the prince of all Saiyans, having skipped Super Saiyan 3 to go straight to becoming a Super Saiyan God.
Vegeta has overwhelmed Goku Black. He achieved Super Saiyan Blue Evolution in the anime and perfected the Super Saiyan Blue form in the manga. He defeated Top in the Tournament of Power after he took on the form of a God of Destruction, and has been training with Whis and Beerus for many months. After fighting Beerus in the manga, Beerus came to the conclusion that Vegeta would be a powerful God of Destruction in another universe.
Beerus was the first God of Destruction we witnessed. He single-handedly took on all of the Z-Warriors, and was the first opponent Goku faced as a Super Saiyan God. Even with the power of a God, Goku failed to defeat him, and Earth was only spared because Beerus wanted to keep it around for its delicacies.
Beerus is implied to be more powerful than Champa by Vados, and he defeated Vegeta when Vegeta was at the level of Gods of Destruction in other universes. When Zamasu became Infinite Zamasu, Beerus didn't even acknowledge his power. Beerus is also the only known God of Destruction to have the ability to use Ultra Instinct.
Before the start of the Tournament of Power, Whis told of a rumour that in another universe, there is a mortal who is more powerful than their God of Destruction, in a universe who has a God of Destruction more powerful than Beerus. Whis knew of the God of Destruction based off of the rumour, alone.
In the anime, the rumour was true, and in the manga, the rumour was partially true. In both the anime and the manga, Jiren was the mortal, but the God of Destruction was different between the two. Quitela of Universe 4 was the Destroyer in the manga, and Belmod of Universe 11 was the Destroyer in the anime. While Beerus tries to argue that it was based solely off of an argument, Whis' confirmation that the rumour is true shows that the God of Destruction that beats Beerus in an arm wrestle should actually just be stronger than him regardless of what Beerus says.
Goku has technically been a god (as a Super Saiyan God) since the beginning of Dragon Ball Super, but it took him the entire season to actually catch up to, and eventually surpass the Gods of Destruction. He's long since defeated Golden Frieza, and he has faced Goku Black since then, as well. He implied that he would be able to defeat Infinite Zamasu if he had another Senzu Bean, and he only gets stronger from there.
During the Tournament of Power, Goku ends up attaining and mastering a state known to the Gods as Ultra Instinct, which is a technique not even the Gods of Destruction can easily learn. He eventually defeated Jiren.
Zalama is a god who we've yet to see on-screen, though to fit the pattern of how all other Eternal Dragons have come to be, we usually assume that Super Shenron was made by a Namekian.
We have never seen Zalama do anything directly, but even in the original Dragon Ball, it is established that an Eternal Dragon can't grant a wish that is beyond the power of the creator. This means granting true immortality, recreating the multiverse, and attaining power enough to kill all Gods of Destruction are wishes within the reach of power for Zalama. Even Goku finds Super Shenron's power useful.
2 Lord of Lords
The Lord of Lords was the original Supreme Kai in Universe 7, the first Supreme Kai who was life-linked to Beerus. Long ago, he sacrificed all of his power to seal away Moro, a powerful villain who has the power to drain the spiritual energy from entire planets at a time.
He sacrificed himself another time to get absorbed by Majin Buu eons ago, pacifying the monster that was once evil in its purest form. Eventually, after the Buu Arc, the Good Buu stayed with the Z-Warriors, and after Moro was revived, the memories that were dormant within Majin Buu held by the Lord of Lords were awakened, giving Buu his power. This allowed him to defeat Moro, who, at the time, was far more powerful than Goku and Vegeta.
1 Zeno/Future Zeno
One might question Zeno being superior to Super Shenron, since he undid the effects of Zeno erasing the universes by wishing them back, but there are two points against that: the first is that Super Shenron can only utilise that amount of power once a year, and Zeno was also holding back.
Whis has stated before that Zeno is capable of erasing anyone and anything, regardless of scale. Planets, galaxies, universes, timelines, Gods, Angels, existence itself; all fall before Zeno's mere glance. All Gods of Destruction have been shown cowering in fear at Zeno's arrival, and those who are confident around Zeno are only revered as being foolish in the eyes of the oldest people in the multiverse.